Appreciative Advising

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By Lurene Kelley

The red pen.

Aside from the apple, it’s the object most emblematic of teaching. The red pen that relentlessly sniffs out errors and makes snarky comments in bright, scarlet ink! But that is our job, right? How else can students improve if we don’t point out what they are doing wrong?

What if the key to improved student outcomes, though, isn’t about identifying problems and trying to help solve them? Perhaps there is equal or even greater value in focusing on what students are already doing right.

That’s what’s behind Appreciative Inquiry, a model that positions transformational change as possible when we help people develop a positive mindset through the inquiry process. According to the model, this is accomplished with “powerful questioning” to locate a person’s hidden strengths, help envision a successful outcome, create a plan to get there and shepherd the student along the way.

You may already do much of this in your interactions with students, but what makes Appreciative Inquiry a unique approach is its grounding in you, the advisor. It is dependent on you maintaining an appreciative mindset with every student, no matter how hopeless their situation seems or frustrating their personality or lack of progress. Your sincere acceptance of the person before you and your unyielding belief in their potential… is at the core.

“Appreciative Inquiry seeks out the best of what is to help ignite the collective imagination of what might be.” (Cooper Rider & Whitney, 2000).

Appreciative Inquiry is an organizational management change model developed in the 1980s (Cooperrider & Srivastva, 1987). It is largely associated with the corporate world but has since been adopted as an approach for academic advising (Bloom & Martin, 2002).

As a CBU advisor, you may think that helping a student develop a “new mindset” sounds like quite a bit to expect out of 30-minute advising sessions, especially when many of you have dozens of students to advise each semester!

But first, take a moment to apply Appreciative Inquiry to yourself – have you ever advised a student who later told you that you changed the course of his life or helped him through a difficult time?

If that question brings a student or even dozens of students to mind, then you know you are already capable of bringing important, positive change through advising. This one powerful question allowed you to identify times you were successful. Now we can develop a strategy based on your strengths to enhance your advising with Appreciative Inquiry!

This is exactly how Appreciative Inquiry works in an advising session – powerful questions allow you and your student to unearth past successes and then develop strategies around those strengths to produce positive outcomes.

The Phases of Appreciative Inquiry 

An advising session guided by Appreciative Theory would follow its five phases: Define/Disarm, Discovery, Dream, Design and Deliver/Destiny.


Source: Coaching Psychology Manual, 2012,

Bloom and Martin (2002) provide specific suggestions for improving academic advising through four of the phases of Appreciative Inquiry:

  1. Believe in the goodness of each student who walks through your door. Treat him or her like you would want your son/daughter/best friend to be treated.
  1. Utilize positive open-ended questions to draw out what students enjoy doing, their strengths, and their passions. Listen to each answer carefully before asking the next positive question (Discovery phase).
  1. Help students formulate a vision of what they might become and then assist them in developing their life and career goals (Dream phase).
  1. Give students a clear idea of what they will need to do by devising concrete, incremental, and achievable goals to make these dreams come true (Design Phase).
  1. Be there for them when they stumble, believe in them every step of the way, and help them continue to update and refine their dreams as they go (Destiny phase) (Bloom & Martin, 2002).

Bloom, Hutson & He (2008) have since expanded the model to six phases and refined the Appreciative Theory model for advising. Bloom developed this guide with specific actions and questions for each. The Bloom Appreciative Advising Guide

Appreciative Advising Online 

All of this can be adapted to advising online learners. Even more than your on-campus advisees, students learning entirely or primarily online can feel disconnected from CBU. As an academic advisor, you can often provide that critical connection that increases engagement and allows a student to feel a sense of belonging.

Just like their campus counterparts, online advisees need your expertise to guide them through majors and to opportunities to improve their chances for success after graduation. But applying the lens and phases of Appreciative Inquiry can help academic advisors truly get to know online advisees – particularly through phone or via webcam sessions. It’s these interpersonal moments with a student that can make follow up email contact more meaningful to both you and the advisee. (This link will take you to the CBU WebEx web version. You just log in with your CBU email and contact a student to get started!)

It would be an unexpected and, likely, welcome moment for an online student, if an advisor asked the student to share an accomplishment that made the advisee feel most proud. Most online students simply expect advisors to tell them which classes to take and how to stay on schedule for graduation.

Asking powerful questions produces answers that inform the advisor about an online student’s strengths. Those questions also allow the advisor to get to know an online student on a more personal level and give the student the sense that the advisor wants to know him as a whole person, not just a name on an academic record.

Obviously, note taking is a critical aspect of Appreciative Advising for both online and on campus students. This allows the advisor to add to and follow up on stories the student has told about herself at each advising session, as well as track the progress of the plans the advisor and advisee have developed together.

Want to Get Started?  

As part of a course at the University of South Carolina on academic advising, Dr. Jennifer Bloom, one of the authors who first applied Appreciative Inquiry to advising, had graduate students submit articles to an academic advising journal. This piece provides academic advisors with a reflection exercise based on the phases of Appreciative Inquiry, while also demonstrating how this approach to advising works with students. Genius! Truschel (2007) also provides examples of “powerful questions” here that can help you identify your advisee’s strengths and past accomplishments.

Backup Provided

We know that as professors, academic advisors, scholars and colleagues – you are already wearing many hats. It may feel that a more intensive advising approach only adds to that weight. But know that as the Online Student Success Specialist, I’m also here to help with online students who might need more assistance than you can offer or with whom you’re having difficulty connecting.

So, please, feel free to refer students facing difficulties with their online experience to me. And, of course, for those students facing challenges on campus, CBU’s Academic Services and the Student Success Center are always there to help and they value your student referrals.

Online Student Success Specialist 

Lurene Kelley, PhD

(901) 321-4456


Bloom, J. L., Hutson, B. L., & He, Y. (2008). The appreciative advising revolution. Champaign, IL: Stipes.

Bloom, J. and Martin, N.A. (2002, August 29). Incorporating appreciative inquiry into academic advising. The Mentor: An Academic Advising Journal, 4 (3).

Cooperrider, D. L., & Srivastva, S. (1987). Appreciative inquiry in organizational life. In Woodman, R.W. & Pasmore, W.A. (eds). Research in Organizational Change and Development (Vol. 1, pp. 129–169). Stamford, CT: JAI Press.

Olson, N. S. (2009, July 10). Appreciative advisers: Be advised. The Mentor: An academic advising journal. Retrieved from

Truschel, J.H. (2007, July 6). Using Appreciative Inquiry in Advising At-Risk Students: Moving from Challenge to Success. The Mentor: An academic advising journal. Retrieved from

Lurene Kelley is the Online Student Success Specialist for OLET.

How Do We Decide What to Believe?

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By Anne Guetschow

“What is the relationship between information and knowledge? How do we decide what to believe? How do we go from being presented with a claim like, ‘Using instructional design skills and educational technology will improve student learning’ to evaluating and deciding to take that on as part of our knowledge? As you know, even the best theories are subject to revision in light of new information.

So, even though you’re being presented here with the best knowledge [OLET] has available, it might turn out that some of it is false, it’s very likely to turn out that it’s at least INCOMPLETE. When presented with a claim, how do we decide whether or not to believe it and, more generally, how do we maximize our chances of coming to have knowledge and of believing those things that will give us the best understanding of the way things are?” (Source: Bob Bain).

Is There a Way to Get to the Truth? 

With information coming at us from so many directions these days, it’s difficult to know what to believe. We need tools to help us deal with information so we can be discerning and selective. How do we develop skills to become better believers? How do we achieve balance between accepting too much on the one hand and not accepting enough on the other?

There are such tools. To illustrate what they are, we are borrowing from a free Massive, Open, Online Course [MOOC] called, Big History. They call these tools, “Claims Testers.”  Let’s take a look at how expert Bob Bain explains what Claims Testers are and how to use them.

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Claims Testers

Critical thinking involves testing claims using all the tools at our disposal.

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These are the four ways that humans test claims (according to Bob Bain):

  1. We use our intuition, which helps us determine which claims we want to investigate.
  1. We rely on authority because none of us can master all disciplines, and as modern humans, we’ve come to rely more and more on collective learning to share both information and the burden of collecting that information. Of course, the source should be reliable and credible.
  1. We use logic, which is our mental capacity to reason, infer, and synthesize information; it allows us to sift through claims to determine what, if anything follows from our initial beliefs.
  1. We use evidence to test claims against verifiable information that allows us to gain knowledge. We look for what evidence is available and weigh how strong it is to support or refute a claim.

Help your students hone their critical thinking skills by testing claims using their intuition, authority, logic, and evidence. 

For information on the Big History MOOC, visit:

Anne Guetschow is an Instructional Designer & Trainer with OLET.

Finding Success Online


By Lurene Kelley

When a CBU student is having trouble in statistics, she can walk into the Cooper-Wilson building and find tutors at the Math Center. If she is nervous about telling her academic advisor she wants to change majors, she can enter the on-campus Student Success Center and receive advice from a familiar face.

But what about the student who lives in Millington, works full-time and has been taking most classes online? He could obviously search the website and hope to find what he needs. But locating the right contact for a specific problem can be a frustrating process, especially if you don’t have someone to turn to for guidance.

Now imagine if this same online student already knew exactly who to contact on campus to help resolve just about any issue that might be standing in his way.

That’s happening at universities across the country, as higher education looks for ways to increase student satisfaction, completion and retention rates, especially for online students who often feel isolated from the college experience. At many institutions, these difference makers are called Online Student Success specialists or coaches. They work with online students to solve the problems that might be slowing or even preventing completion of their degree.

As the Online Learning & Educational Technology (OLET) office works to launch CBU’s first fully-online degrees, this Student Success model is at the core of its development.

Laying the Groundwork  

At CBU, our Online Learning & Educational Technology team is working with administrators across the university to prepare our first fully-online degrees. And part of that preparation is considering how to meet the needs of students who don’t come to campus.

We’ve been working with Library Services, Career Services, Academic Services, the Student Success Center and others to determine which tools online students can already access and which will need to be enhanced with technology, such as video conferencing, to serve online students.

Inside Canvas, we’ve developed this Online Student Success Resource Guide that faculty is encouraged to share with online students. This is just one tool.

The work that should yield the most rewarding outcomes, however, is the personal attention given to students both when they reach out for help or when we reach out to them. These are the phone calls, the emails and text messages that will not only give a nudge and a helping hand to a student who is not logging into class but also reminders about important university deadlines. It will also mean that we contact our online students just to let them know that we are here, available and that being online with CBU means you are not just a number.

Learning Best Practices 

The University of Central Florida is the second largest higher education institution in the country serving more than 67,000 students. UCF has been providing online education for the past two decades and takes pride in setting the standard for online teaching. All faculty that teach online must go through two semesters of intensive training.

But in the competitive space of online education, UCF knew it had to do more. In 2015, UCF Connect was launched. This ambitious initiative matches every fully online student with a personal Success Coach.

IMG_0349The student and coach are paired from first term through graduation. Each online UCF student still has an academic advisor, but the Success Coach plays a different, yet complementary role.  This coach collaborates with students to develop strategies for homework and class attendance, directs students to university and community resources, and even provides support and ideas to alleviate some of the stressors in their busy, daily lives.

UCF Success Coaches are part mentor, part counselor, part advisor and the student’s biggest cheerleader on campus. They do not take the place of mentors, counselors or academic advisors, however, and will send students to these specialized professionals when the need is specific and requires more expertise.

IMG_0320This July, as CBU’s first Online Student Success Coach, I was invited to participate in UCF Connect’s inaugural “Introduction to Coaching Bootcamp.” Coaches and administrators from five colleges participated in the 3-day bootcamp. UCF Connect intends this course to be the foundation for a new Coaching Academy that is currently in development.

Dr. Jenny Sumner is the Executive Director of UCF Online Connect Center & Strategic Initiatives for UCF Connect. She was part of the initial group of academics and UCF staff who collaborated to develop their Online Connect Center that works one-on-one with students at the point they even show interest in online learning. The Connection Center then walks them through the admissions process and coaches them through the ups and downs of being a college student and the difficulties they encounter balancing academics and life outside the university.

“The coaches help you through ‘the how.’ How will you juggle school with working full time, having kids, sometimes sick kids! How will you be successful with all of that,” said Dr. Sumner in a podcast interview Higher Ed Marketing Lab. “The coaches give them the resources and support mechanism that they need with all the things going on in their lives. It’s very rewarding for the student we work with.”

IMG_0319In the three years since the Online Connect Center launched, enrollment and retention of online students have far exceeded expectations. Dr. Sumner believes one of the keys to their success (and that of their students!) is how well Success Coaches can help people feel connected to UCF – even when the only tangible connection is through a computer and a telephone line.

“We want students to engage with us in ways they might not otherwise be able to do online,” Dr. Sumner, “If we can’t make that connection, that’s how we lose a student.”

Finding Success at CBU 

Reality check: We are not a large, publicly funded university like UCF, and we already face challenges meeting student needs based on limited resources and infrastructure. The idea is not to take what is being done at UCF and plop it down here. Rather, it is about working with the resources, culture and talent we already have at CBU to do what we do so well — connect with students. What’s next is enhancing that connection with technology.

Academic Services, the Student Success Center and several tutoring centers across campus have continuously worked on new and better ways to serve student needs and provide quality academic support. This commitment to improve student outcomes is at the center of the search led by Academic Services to identify, purchase and implement a robust advising and retention platform with a targeted launch in time for the 2020-2021 academic year. This will help CBU offices, faculty and staff collaborate electronically and provide a more seamless student experience and identify and address student issues in class or in their lives before they become overwhelming obstacles to success.

As the OLET Team builds toward a population of fully online learners at CBU, our plan is help these students feel connected to our campus, our culture, our faculty and staff. This role of an Online Student Success coach, along with a new advising platform, will allow our campus staff and faculty better know a CBU student who only learns online.

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The OLET team has another goal: That by working across departments to build the infrastructure and processes necessary to create, implement and evolve a technologically facilitated pedagogy that learning outcomes will improve, regardless of course modality. So, whether a student learns in a classroom, online or in a hybrid environment that utilizes both, an education at CBU will continue to mean an educational experience that considers the whole person.

At CBU, we already know that learning does not take place in a vacuum. Whether a student is learning in a classroom or from their own home, we realize that education often takes a back seat to the many and varied other commitments and concerns in their lives. Our Student Success Center and the counseling, mentoring and tutoring services CBU already provides are a testament to our sense of service to students.

By taking this responsibility online, we are saying that creating an online program is not about making more money or increasing our numbers. This initiative is about opening the doors of CBU to students who might otherwise not have access, because their lives are too full or complicated to commit to being on campus at specific times. With this population in mind, we are building online learning that works for people in ways that traditional classroom learning might not.

At its core – we must commit to designing a structure that sets all students up to succeed, even those who only enter Plough Library or speak to their professor via an electronic connection.

 Lurene Kelley is the Student Success Specialist for OLET

Teaching Problem Solving Skills To Novice Learners

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By Anne Guetschow

I have heard at least one CBU professor ask about ways to teach problem-solving skills to novice learners. Because of this wonderful question, I am sharing several guidelines I think will start to provide some answers.

These guidelines are practical tactics to improve student learning that have arisen out of research on Cognitive Load Theory.

 “Cognitive load theory has its modern origins in experiments conducted by Dr. John Sweller at the University of South Wales, Australia, in the early 1980’s. Today, cognitive load theory has grown into one of the most widely recognized sets of proven principles governing learning and instruction in the training profession” (Clark, Nguyen, & Sweller, p. 1-2).

If you have not heard of Cognitive Load Theory before and your instructional practice includes teaching problem-solving skills to novice learners, it might be time to sharpen your saw. This article is a good place to start doing that.

“Many training professionals will recall the recommendation to shape their instruction around the ‘magical number of 7 plus or minus 2’ in order to avoid overloading their learners. Cognitive load theory is the 21st Century update to that maxim. Cognitive load theory is a comprehensive and proven instructional theory that illustrates ways to reduce unproductive forms of cognitive load and at the same time maximize productive sources of cognitive load that lead to efficient learning environments” (Clark, Nguyen, & Sweller, p.xvi).

Click here to watch a brief (4:19) video that describes Cognitive Load Theory.

I have also curated a white paper entitled “Tactics to Improve Student Learning” developed for CBU professors wishing to learn new ways to help students learn more efficiently. You can download the entire white paper here: Tactics to Improve Student Learning

But if you want to just drill down to the most relevant aspect of this white paper to problem-solving tactics, there is one particular chapter from the white paper you may want to read.

The chapter, “Does Practice Make Perfect?” presents four research-based guidelines for improving students’ problem-solving abilities that take less time than the traditional method of immersing students immediately into doing practice problems. For novice learners who need to devote working memory capacity to building new schemas, working many practice problems slows learning by overloading working memory.

Guidelines 17 – 20 provide proven alternatives that may just lead to dramatic improvements in students’ problem-solving abilities.

Click here to read the Does Practice Make Perfect Chapter


Clark, R., Nguyen, F., & Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load (Pfeiffer essential resources for training and HR professionals). San Francisco, Calif.: Pfeiffer.

Anne Guetschow is an Instructional Designer & Trainer for OLET

Collaborations in Canvas


By Tyler Isbell

Can you imagine an instructional strategy that can develop a student’s critical thinking skills, demonstrate problem solving techniques, and increase student engagement while also improving a student’s self-esteem?

These benefits, among many others, have surfaced in research on collaborative learning.  Collaborative learning is the “grouping and pairing of learners for the purpose of achieving a learning goal” (Laal & Ghodsi, 2012).  Thanks to the use of collaborative technologies integrated with the Canvas LMS, CBU faculty and students can reap these same benefits.

Canvas Collaborations involve the use of Office 365 (or Google Docs) to create a document that multiple users can edit in real-time.  This means that notes, agendas, slides, or assignments can be created, edited, and revised by a group of users who will see any changes made to the document almost immediately.

To get started, simply click ‘Collaborations’ located on the Course Navigation menu within the intended course.  Check out these Canvas guides for more information and detailed instructions: ‘What are Collaborations?’ and ‘How do I use the Collaborations Index Page?

It is important to remember that “all collaborative learning is done in a group, but not all group work is inherently collaborative” (Scheuermann, 2017).  Have high expectations that all group members will help and share within their group, and that all learners are accountable for everyone’s learning — Let your students know that they can’t simply “divide and conquer” the work!  Activities should be aligned to your learning outcomes and assess students individually while also requiring effort from all members of the group.


Laal, M., & Ghodsi, S. (2012). Benefits of collaborative learning. Procedia – Social And Behavioral Sciences, 31, 486-490. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.091

Scheuermann, J. (2017). Group vs. Collaborative Learning: Knowing the Difference Makes a Difference. Best Of The 2017 Teaching Professor Conference, 11-13.

Smith, B.L., and J. MacGregor. (1992). Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. University Park, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment (NCTLA). 9-22.

Tyler Isbell is an Instructional Designer & Trainer for OLET

Transformational Learning, Next

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By Dale Hale

What is “Next”? That’s a great question, don’t you think? According to Merriam-Webster, the word “next” is “something that is either immediately adjacent to or coming in the time, place or order nearest or immediately succeeding.”

My wife and I often run errands together. I am generally the driver and she is most often the navigator. We’ll finish one stop and I’ll ask, “What’s next?”, meaning, where are we going next. Off we go, around the corner and down the road to the next stop. I especially like it when one of those stops is at an ice cream or chocolate shop.

CBU/Next is in several ways like my question to my wife. It’s a path to something that is next, either in time, place or order. It is, in fact, a monthly newsletter produced by the office of Online Learning and Educational Technology. In this newsletter, we will be sharing with you thoughts and ideas, news, and new opportunities for you, the faculty of Christian Brothers University, to discover new tools and new uses for more traditional approaches to education.

We want you to be equipped to do the job of teaching today’s student. CBU/Next will provide you with those moments of information and direction that will help you do just that.

What’s next for CBU, however, goes beyond this newsletter and is embodied in the essence of this university. In CBU’s Strategic Plan, a strong emphasis on transformative learning is front and center. The plan states:

“All CBU students will have more high-impact, transformational learning experiences that foster personal growth and set them apart in graduate school and the job market.”

What does that look like? How do we participate? What does that have to do with this newsletter? The plan goes on to say:

“To achieve this, CBU will optimize our current learning spaces, and we will develop and expand our programs to meet student needs.”

Ah, now we’re getting somewhere. “CBU will optimize our current learning spaces and we will develop” more ways of meeting the learning needs and goals of our students by investing in both the faculty tools of teaching, as well as reaching those students previously unavailable to us.

So, Next is a newsletter, but it is also a direction. The office of Online Learning and Educational Technology is a new group here at CBU. Our task is to help CBU step into the next learning environment – online education. The four of us bring a wealth of knowledge in the online world with over 30 years experience between corporate and academic worlds. Two highly qualified instructional designers, a former professor of journalism turned social media expert, and a former director of an online program at another institution all converge at this time to make up the office of Online Learning and Educational Technology, or OLET.

Through the Next newsletter and a future website, we will provide opportunities for you to learn about new tools at your disposal, to find new ways of reaching those students who have not yet been able to receive a CBU education.

You may not currently think of online learning as “what’s next” for a small Catholic college rooted in the student-centered, Lasallian tradition of education. We hope you’ll see as we work together to bring new digital experiences to you and your students that online education can be enriching to both the professor and the student. Our collective mission is to hold to the Lasallian values of excellence in education, respect for the individual and, throughout this approach, a learning environment imbued with a spirit of community. We are here to partner with you to create, manage, and facilitate significant digital learning experiences for your students.

These are exciting days at CBU. We have a new president who brings with him a vision for what CBU could be. We live in an age where technology offers us new platforms with the tools and educational experience needed to do the work for which they are training. Our job, as the OLET team, is to keep our fingers on the pulse of the developing world of educational technology while also providing you with the opportunities to teach students with a “high-impact, transformational learning experience that fosters personal growth and sets them apart” as a standard of graduate that speaks of an exemplary educational experience.

Yes, we believe that Online Learning and Educational Technology can adhere to these lofty principals. Together, we can achieve this and so much more. Join us as we learn and grow to become CBU/Next. 

Dale Hale is the Director of CBU Online Learning & Education Technology